Jon Gillock, renowned for his writings and performances of Messiaen’s organ music, plays Le Banquet céleste and La Nativité in this Volume 5 of his recordings of the complete organ works of Messiaen. As in all of the volumes, Jon Gillock plays the comprehensive 111-rank pipe organ at The Church of the
Ascension, New York, built by French organbuilder Pascal Quoirin in 2011
with both electric and tracker-action consoles, optimized to play
French repertoire and especially Messiaen, and capable of playing most
An Invitation to a Musical and Spiritual Journey
I invite you to join me in a musical-spiritual journey, to meditate with Messiaen (and me) on the religious texts that he chose and which inspired him to compose these works. Although the inspiration for this music definitely comes from Catholic-Christian teachings, I also believe that through the universal language of music Messiaen’s music transcends this and also speaks of a universal spiritual truth. As with any great work of art, it can be interpreted on many different levels: I hope that each of you will be able to find the proper way for it to speak to you.
It is also interesting to remember these words of Messiaen himself regarding his music: “I’m a Christian . . . and I think that in the present age of ecumenism - and, furthermore, in every era - we shouldn’t attach too much importance to religious differences. Everyone - Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant Christians, Israelites, even Buddhists - is seeking God, finding God. My work is addressed to all who believe - and also to all others.”
The soundscape: As in the other CDs in this series, the volume level has not been equalized. Therefore, the listener may experience the true dynamic range of this music that Messiaen asks for. Thus, it is important to find the listening level from the beginning, and then stay with that throughout. There are many quiet movements, which should be very quiet, and then, when the overwhelming moments arrive, they are very powerful indeed. - Jon Gillock
Le Banquet céleste
The Celestial Banquet, 1928
“He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in Him.”
St. John 6:56
Messiaen’s first published work, Le Banquet céleste, began life as the slow, second theme of an orchestral work, Le Banquet Eucharistique, begun around 1926-27, which was never finished. Thus, his first organ work is really a transcription. Written when he was around eighteen years old, we can already hear in it certain unmistakable elements of his very personal musical style: modes other than major and minor (his “Modes of Limited Transpositions”) as the basis for harmony and melody, slow, sustained, expressive writing evoking the celestial and mystical (only 25 measures requiring around eight minutes to perform). Looking back over his career, we can easily see that this kind of spiritual “sweetness” played an important part in his total output. It is, of course, a piece about the Holy Eucharist or Communion. It is especially appropriate to play it on the day of the Feast of the Holy Sacrament or Corpus Christi, eleven days after Pentecost. It is a piece with two themes: the first, slow, sustained, far away, mysterious, representing most of all the love God has for us by sacrificing his Son; the second, a melody played by the feet like “drops of water,” representing Christ’s blood “that was shed for us for the remission of sins.” Over this second theme, the first theme is developed in an orchestral crescendo and diminuendo.
The work begins far away in the heavens. We can just barely hear it. It is the voice of God slowly, gently, lovingly entering our hearts and minds. It transports us out of our everyday world. We begin to contemplate the spiritual. It speaks of a great mystery, the Communion, an act that has united Christians for centuries, one they must believe by faith alone. By the time we reach the climax, our hearts are imbued with the love of God and we feel protected by his all-encompassing arms, which surround us. That represents the summit of our Communion with him. From that point to the end, that intense feeling subsides. We have experienced the Divine; he has penetrated our hearts. We have been fulfilled in this act of Christian love. As the music ends, we simply hear it no longer, even though it continues just as the motion of the universe continues, just as eternity. We will hear it and experience it again each time we partake in this act.
La Nativité du Seigneur
The Birth of the Lord, 1935
La Nativité was first performed on February 27, 1936, at La Trinité in Paris by three organists who shared the program. Movements i-iii were played by Jean-Yves Daniel-Lesur, movements iv-vi by Jean Langlais, and movements vii-ix by Jean-Jacques Grunenwald. Included on the program was also Le Banquet Céleste, performed by Grunenwald. Messiaen, in a letter to Marcel Dupré before the concert, wrote, “The performers are playing like angels.”
La Nativité is the first of Messiaen’s large cycles entirely conceived for the organ. Messiaen himself tells us that this work contains five principal ideas: 1-Our predestination realized through the Incarnation of the Word (iii); 2 - God living in the midst of us (ix), God suffering (vii); 3-Three births: the eternal birth of the Word (iv), the temporal birth of Christ (i), the spiritual birth of Christians (v); 4-the description of several personages giving to the feasts of Christmas and Epiphany a special poetry: the Angels (vi), the Shepherds (ii), the Wise Men (viii); 5-nine pieces in all to honor the motherhood of the Holy Virgin.
It is interesting to note from the beginning that La Nativité as a whole is a quiet work, meditating on aspects of the events and personages encountered in the Christmas story. These enchanting, contemplative pieces explore many, many unusual and subtle colors of the organ and prepare for the main event of our narrative, the physical entrance of Christ into the world, which is not quiet, but is treated like a grand fanfare, full of excitement and joy.
This suite is probably the best known of all the Messiaen cycles for organ. In Claude Samuel’s Conversations with Olivier Messiaen (1967), Messiaen said, “. . . La Nativité du Seigneur, [is] a work which gained great success in France and abroad (without deserving it, for I’ve done much better). But La Nativité with its Hindu rhythms nevertheless constituted a great change in organ music at a time when Franck represented the summit of modernism.”
I. La Vierge et l’Enfant
The Virgin and the Child
“Behold, a virgin shall conceive, for unto us a child is born, unto us a Son is given. Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion. Behold, thy King cometh unto thee: He is just and lowly.”
Isaiah 7:14, [9:6]; Zechariah 9:9
In this reflective portrait of Mary, we are able to penetrate her innermost thoughts as she contemplates the birth of her child. First, through a very unusual registration and slow tempo, we see her pondering the miracle of virgin birth and why she has been chosen for this role.
Then, out of this great mystery, we see Mary rejoicing, filled with a great inner joy, expressed by a lively tempo, supple rhythms, and the very colorful (but not loud) registration. The music here is very repetitive in order to create a sense of timelessness, the sense of rapture that is going on in Mary’s head and heart as she gazes at the babe that is now in her arms, the mystical birth of the Lord. This vision gently fades away.
Finally, with a return of the original music in a simplified registration, Mary has accepted her destiny, that she is the mother of a just and lowly son. The concluding improvisatory phrase is perhaps Mary shuddering while realizing all this, and it brings to my mind these closing words from Purcell’s The Blessed Virgin’s Expostulation: “I trust the God, but oh! I fear the Child” (text by Nahum Tate, 1690-1715). The piece ends in complete repose.
II. Les Bergers
“Having found the babe lying in a manger, the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God.” St. Luke 2:, 20
In another picture, we see the shepherds. In a very serene, mysterious, and slowly revolving introduction, they have just found the babe lying in the manger. In quiet adoration, they are hushed, full of awe. (Messiaen says this is colored like stained glass: “blue-violet, a touch of red, gold, and silver). We hear the stars twinkling and the clouds moving very slowly.
Preparing to depart, they begin to warm up the musical instruments they have brought with them.
On their return to their fields and flocks - amazed to have seen the infant Jesus lying in the manger, hardly believing their eyes - they play a noël, glorifying and praising God. Thus, a simple, naïve melody comes forth in the style of an organ noël popular during the French classical period (such as those of D’Aquin, Lebègue, and others, always with variations). First, we hear the simple melody - not loud and in a moderate tempo, still reflective - followed by its echo, taken by another instrument, and then the melody ornamented, again repeated in echo. Perhaps two of the shepherds are taking turns playing while the others listen in contemplation.
III. Desseins éternels
“God, in His love, has predestined us to be His adoptive children through Jesus Christ, to the praise and glory of His grace.” Ephesians 1:5, 6
Without doubt, this is one of the most intimate and beautiful of all Messiaen’s slow movements. It is extremely quiet (in its movement and its color) and inward. It is ecstatic in its deeply inner joy: that God has allowed lowly man to become his children, that man has the hope of salvation. It is very precious and tender, expressing the almost unbelievable emotion that God could love humankind in such an all encompassing way. It is like a vocalise, and it is profound. By the end of this third piece, we have completely entered into Messiaen’s mystical world, descending into a deep meditative state, with energy and dynamic levels reaching a low for the whole suite.
IV. Le Verbe
“The Lord hath said unto me, Thou art my Son. From his breast, before the dawn existed, He begat me. From the beginning, I am the Image of the Goodness of God, I am the Word of Life.” Psalm 2:7; Psalm 109 (110):3;
Wisdom 7:26; 1 John 1:1
This is the first dramatic piece we have encountered so far. After the quietly meditating first three movements, it is almost shocking when this piece begins. It is a stunning movement, not because of virtuosity but because of the brilliant way in which Messiaen illuminates these biblical texts. The movement is composed of two very contrasting parts.
The first half of the piece is a vivid, aural depiction of these phrases combined from the two psalms: “The Lord hath said unto me, Thou art my Son. From his breast, before the dawn existed, He begat me.“ It is about the conception of the Son by the Father – from the Son’s point of view. It speaks especially about this act of conception in an outward, fiery manner. It is made up of three different thematic ideas, contrasting in color, tempo, and mood, treated very orchestrally: first, like a whirlwind, then a voice (recitative) out of the whirlwind, and finally, majestic, regal harmonies that lead us back to an even more powerful restatement of the recitative.
The second half is the opposite of the first, returning us to the meditative world. But, like the first section, it is another declamation. It is the voice of Jesus speaking, pronouncing these solemn truths from Wisdom and the First Letter of St. John: “I am the Image of the Goodness of God, I am the Word of Life.“ It is fervent, solemn, eternal. Its melody is completely derived from its first two phrases, reminding us of the ornamented chorales of Bach, repeated phrases of a plainsong Kyrie, and beats of irregular lengths as in Hindu ragas.
V. Les Enfants de Dieu
The Children of God
“But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God. And God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba! Father!” St. John 1:12; Galatians 4:6
The fifth piece brings us back into our own world, telling us that it is possible for us to become God’s children. It divides itself into two large sections: the first is a representation of this power, and the second, which returns us to the spiritual world, is the receiving of this power into our hearts.
The third piece meditates on the fact that we are predestined to be God’s children through the love he has for us and the fifth piece tells us that if we receive him we have the power to become his children, two very different ideas that are closely related.
Messiaen treats this power in the style of a French organ toccata. It is a power that we first hear in the distance, gradually coming closer and closer to us, progressively gaining in strength and energy. The climax of this build-up is the cry “Abba! Father!” Near the end of this section the animation broadens, eventually the motion slows down even more, and there is a diminuendo that leads to the calm and serenity of the second section. All of this is like a huge storm which we can see approaching in the distance, which passes over us, and which we see spin itself out as it vanishes in the distance. This was not a destructive storm: it brought a parched terrain much-needed nourishment. The calmness that arrives afterward is the realization of that fact.
VI. Les Anges
“A multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, Glory to God in the Highest.”
St. Luke 2:13, 14
It is interesting to compare the texts that Handel and Messiaen chose for their “Messiahs”! They really have very few in common, but this is one of them. In reality, they share a common treatment - both are full of energy. (If you think about the string parts in Handel’s “Glory to God,” they have much the same kind of vitality that Messiaen’s “Angels” have.) Messiaen gives us a wonderful description of this piece: “fast and joyous, the music evolves constantly in the high register, the rhythm is extremely free - all contributes to a lively, majestic movement, freed of all mortal impediment.”
In this picture we see a very excited armée céleste, flying here and there, exclaiming “Glory to God in the Highest.” Angels move with their wings in total freedom, and it is this movement in something like a “swarm” (after all, it is a “celestial army”) that we should imagine. In flights of fancy and joyous excitement, they exclaim their “good news,” darting here and there, coming closer, moving off, coming close again. At the end, they fly off in a flurry of activity out of our sight and hearing!
VII. Jésus accepte la Souffrance
Jesus Accepts Suffering
“Wherefore when he cometh into the world, Christ saith to his Father: In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin Thou hast had no pleasure, but a body hast Thou prepared me. Lo, I come.”
Hebrews 10:5, , 7
Because most of us have somewhat of a fairy-tale idea of Christmas - the annunciation, the babe in a manger, the shepherds, the angels, the wise men - the title and text of this piece may seem somewhat shocking. This may not seem like a piece for Christmas at all because it is about the Passion, acknowledging the fact that Christ already knew, before his birth, that he would be sacrificed on the cross, that he would suffer to save mankind. Of course, its use here is completely logical: it is for this purpose alone that Christmas even exists. Nevertheless, this piece adds a solemn commentary to these joyful, yet contemplative, scenes of the Christmas story. Musically and theatrically it forms a dramatic contrast to the pieces around it and gives a slight relief to the mostly colorful, meditative, and naïve pieces that we have had thus far in the suite.
The opening musical gesture brings an instantaneous change of mood. It is the announcement of suffering that is demanded of the Son by the Father. The response, lyric and legato, is the groaning reply of the Son, uttering, “Father, must I?” The sorrowful music, which follows on the string stops, is the human Christ, somewhat faint, imagining what the dejected, painful acts of his crucifixion will be like, inwardly moaning. These two ideas are developed. A third idea, forming an arch of ascending/descending parallel harmonies, is again questioning, but also moaning and sighing. This leads to a restatement of the two opening motives. From this point onward the mood of the piece is gradually transformed from sorrowful to triumphant as Christ fully and unconditionally accepts his mission, “Lo, I come.”
VIII. Les Mages
The Wise Men
“The Wise Men departed; and, lo, the star went before them.” St. Matthew 2:9
With Les Mages we return to the world of meditation, of quiet, subdued, impressionistic colors, into a dream-like state.
This is another portrait, this time picturing the wise men riding on camel back on a long voyage. They are tired, they are half-asleep on their camels, maybe even asleep some of the time - traveling at night so they can see the star leading them forward, and resting during the day when it is probably too hot to travel over the desert sands. The motion of being on the camel is a mesmerizing movement, one that could put you to sleep, one that could make you feel as if you were in a dream, going on for days - a state of timelessness. This is the music of the right hand.
The music of the left hand is important in helping to establish the mood. Because it is sustained and “veiled” in the background, it greatly contributes to the filmy, impressionistic, almost unreal quality of this picture.
The melody, played by the feet, is the light of the star drawing the wise men toward the babe. It has a very luminous and colorful sound. This melody is also repetitive, which adds to the mesmerizing effect. It is the energy from the light of the star that seems to draw the caravan forward throughout the piece. Two times the music slows and slows - the first time, perhaps, it is because the wise men have gone to sleep, and the camels (not being urged onward) have decided to take a rest, which in turn wakes the wise men and off they go again.
After the second time, however, there is a change of tempo and registration: this is because the wise men have now reached their destination. They are kneeling at the manger of the infant Jesus, where they are presenting their gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. The hushed atmosphere, created by the new slower tempo and the quieter and simpler registration, communicates wonderment at being in the presence of the sleeping baby (not wanting to awaken him), and, at the same time, the awe and reverence of being in the presence of God. The piece ends in F-sharp major, a sparkling of all possible colors, Messiaen’s key of love.
IX. Dieu parmi nous
God Among Us
Words of the communicant, of the Virgin, of the whole Church:
“So the Creator of all things gave me a commandment, and he that made me caused my tabernacle to rest. The Word was made flesh and dwelt among us. My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.” Ecclesiasticus 24:8; St. John 1:14;
St. Luke 1:46, 47
As the tender vision of the wise men kneeling at the manger fades away, a powerful fanfare interrupts our dream and brings us back to the night of Christmas. It announces the birth of the Lord as if we were experiencing and witnessing the event. With a tremendous descending figure (played by the feet) God in human form — the Incarnation — descends to earth and is now among us. This grandiose gesture is immediately answered by a theme of love (on the Voix céleste), delicate, quiet, and magical, representing the communion. A joyous third theme follows, played in octaves like the supple song of a bird, representing the Magnificat (“My soul doth magnify the Lord . . .”). In a long first half, these three themes are developed: alternation of the first and third themes; the third theme in two-part counterpoint, the second theme played by the full string section of the orchestra in impressionistic style with pizzicatos in the pedal, all of this leading to a slower restatement of the opening theme with the descending pedal motif now in ascending motion.
That rather long first section, made-up of several smaller sections, forms an introduction. The main part of the piece is a thunderous, energetic toccata which is built on the opening descending pedal theme, overflowing with joy, echoing the words of the communicant, the Virgin, of the whole church: “My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour”.
Notes by Jon Gillock ©2020
For more information see Jon Gillock’s
Performing Messiaen’s Organ Music:
Indiana University Press
Jon Gillock, renowned for his writings and performances of Messiaen’s organ music, plays Le Banquet céleste. and La Nativité in Volume 5 of his recordings of the complete organ music of Messiaen, on the comprehensive 111-rank pipe organ at The Church of the
Ascension, New York, built by French organbuilder Pascal Quoirin in 2011
with both electric and tracker-action consoles, optimized to play
French repertoire and especially Messiaen, and capable of playing most
On January 15, 1974, Jon Gillock gave the New York premiere of Olivier Messiaen’s Méditations sur le Mystère de la Sainte Trinité at The Church of the Ascension. That single performance launched his career as a concert artist almost over night, giving performances of this work from coast to coast. The following year, he gave the first New York performance of Messiaen’s complete works for organ (the Livre du Saint Sacrement had not yet been written) in a series of five concerts. Soon afterward, he met Messiaen who invited Gillock to visit him in Paris. In 1977, Gillock went to Paris to study with his maître at the Paris Conservatory.
In 1978, Gillock performed the Méditations in the presence of the composer at the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, New York, in a concert honoring Messiaen’s 70th birthday. This performance cemented a long friendship between the two. Messiaen later wrote to Gillock about this performance:
Again I remember with emotion your marvelous performance of my Méditations sur le Mystère de la Sainte Trinité in New York . . . I was infinitely touched by your wonderful interpretation: registration, touch, understanding — all were ideally beautiful. You will never know how much I admired your playing. Again thank you and bravo!!!
Later, in Claude Samuel’s 1986 book, Entretiens Avec Olivier Messiaen, Messiaen stated:
Certain ones [organists] play it better than me . . . there is the excellent American organist Jon Gillock in New York . . .
Press and public alike acclaim American organist Jon Gillock for his sensitive and moving performances. He is especially fond of performing the “French spiritual repertoire.” This includes the music of such composers as François Couperin, Maurice Duruflé, Nicolas de Grigny, César Franck, Charles Tournemire, Louis Vierne, and, of course, Olivier Messiaen and Johann Sebastian Bach.
Jon Gillock earned the BM and MM degrees at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville and the DMA at The Juilliard School in New York City. His other notable teachers have been Weldon Marshall, John Cowell, and Vernon de Tar.
Gillock gave performances of Messiaen’s organ works across the United States and in Japan, including the first performance in Japan of the complete works (Tokyo, 2008). He also gave many performances of Livre du Saint Sacrement from the composer’s manuscript before it was published. During 2008, he celebrated Messiaen’s centenary around the world with concerts, masterclasses, and lectures. He has also given many concerts of Messiaen’s music in Paris at Eglise de la Sainte-Trinité, where Messiaen was the organist. His book, Performing Messiaen’s Organ Music: 66 Masterclasses, was published by Indiana University Press in 2010. It has been acclaimed internationally for its importance among writings about these works.
Jon Gillock has established an international career not only as a performer but also as a master teacher. Now a resident of Paris, he has been a member of the organ faculties of The Juilliard School, the Manhattan School of Music, and Montclair State University in Upper Montclair, New Jersey. During 2004-2009, he participated as Artist Faculty with Yuko Hayashi in the Boston Organ Academy. From 2011 to 2013, he served on the faculty, along with Dennis Keene, in the Ascension Organ Academy at The Church of the Ascension. He has also served as a jury member of international organ competitions.
Jon Gillock was named International Performer of the Year, 1999-2000, by the New York City Chapter of the American Guild of Organists. Among the awards he has received for his recordings are the Diapason d’Or and the 10 de Répertoire in France and the Preis der Deutschen Schallplatten Kritik in Germany. He is a member of the Artistic Committee of the Association Grand Orgue Trinité Messiaen, Eglise de la Sainte-Trinité, Paris.
This recording, Le Banquet céleste and La Nativité du Seigneur (OAR 985), is the fifth in this series which comprises the complete organ works of Messiaen. Méditations sur le Mystère de la Sainte Trinité (OAR-981), Livre du Saint Sacrement (OAR-982), Prélude, Messe de la Pentecôte, and L’Ascension (OAR-983), and Monodie, Diptyque, and Les Corps glorieux (OAR-984) are the previous releases. One volume remains to be recorded: Livre d’Orgue, Apparition de l’Eglise éternelle, Verset pour la Fête de la Dédicace, and Offrande au Saint Sacrement.
A Personal Note
What a pleasure it is to make music on this exceptional organ by Pascal Quoirin, where all the sounds are so refined, beautiful, even, perfectly regulated. To me, they are perfect for Messiaen’s music.
While I realize that the acoustic at The Church of the Ascension is completely different from Messiaen’s La Trinité (where I have performed many times) and most large French churches, it is clear and warm and, for me, that gives this music another dimension in these recordings. While I would never try for clarity in a French church (which is impossible), it is a natural occurrence here.
In reality, Messiaen’s organ music is no different from his orchestral music. Yet, orchestras never play in concert halls that are reverberant as churches are. There, the acoustic is warm but it is not full of reverberation, and you can easily hear the details of music. That is what I like about the Church of the Ascension: one can easily hear all the detail that Messiaen used to compose his music, whereas in so many recordings of this music much detail is lost in the “echo” of the room. Being able to hear the detail adds to the power and the mystery of the music. Of course, this music is appropriate in many different settings, and each one will produce a different sonic experience.
The Manton Memorial Organ built by Pascal Quoirin, Saint-Didier, France (2011)
The Church of the Ascension, New York, New York
Mechanical action with 3-manual console, Electric action with 4-manual console
*available solely on the electric console
GRAND-ORGUE Man. 1, 61 notes
8* Second (large Cavaillé-Coll-style Montre)
8 Flûte traversière
5-1/3 Gros Nasard
4 *Second (large Cavaillé-Coll-style Prestant)
4 Flûte ouverte
3-3/5 Grosse Tierce
II Grande Fourniture
VII Cornet MC
8 1ère Trompette
8 2ème Trompette (chamade)
Grand-Orgue *16 *4 *Unison
8 Trompette harmonique en chamade (Récit)
POSITIF Man. 2, 61 notes
8 Flûte conique
4 Flûte conique
2 Quarte de Nasard
Positif *16 *4 *Unison
8 *Trompette harmonique en chamade (Récit)
RECIT-ECHO (expressif) Man. 3 mechanical console; Man. 4 electric console, 61 notes
4 Flûte allemande
8 Voix humaine
8 Basson (Cor anglais)
Récit-Echo *16 *4 *Unison
8* Trompette harmonique en chamade (Récit)
Man. 3 electric console only, 61 nts
8 *Flûte harmonique
8 *Voix céleste
4 *Flûte octaviante
2-2/3 *Nasard harmonique
1-3/5 *Tierce harmonique
V *Plein Jeu
III *Sur Cymbale
8 *Trompette harmonique
4 *Clairon harmonique
8 *Basson Hautbois
8 *Voix humaine
Récit *16 *4 *Unison
8 *Trompette harmonique en chamade
PEDALE 32 notes
16 Bourdon (ext. 32)
16 *Petit Bourdon (Récit)
10-2/3 Grande Quinte
8 Flûte (ext. 16)
8 Violoncelle (ext. 16 Prin.)
6-2/5 Grande Tierce
5-1/3 Quinte (ext. 10-2/3)
4 Flûte (ext. 8 Bourdon)
3-1/5 Tierce (ext. 6-2/5)
2-2/3 Quinzième (ext. 4 Prestant)
IV Plein Jeu
16 Bombarde (ext. 32)
16 Basson (Schnitger-type Posaune)
8 Basson (ext. 16)
4 Clairon (ext. 8 Trompette)
8 *Trompette harmonique en chamade (Récit)
Couplers to Pedal
Tirasse G.O. 8 (thumb, toe) *4
Tirasse Pos. 8 *4
Tirasse Réc. *8 *4
Tirasse Echo 8 *4
Couplers to Grand Orgue
Positif / G.O. *16 8 *4
Récit / G.O. *16 *8 *4
Echo / G.O. *16 8 *4
Couplers to Positif
Récit / Pos *16 *8 *4
Echo / Pos *16 8 *4
*Cloches (Tower Bells)
*Grand-Récit Chancel Shades
*Grand-Récit Nave Shades
*Crescendo & Annuler toe stud
*Récit Boxes II/I
10 General Pistons, both consoles, thumb & toe
*8 Pistons, Grand-Récit, thumb
*5 Pistons other divisions
Piston Sequencer: Previous, Next Pistons in several locations