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Virgil Fox Remembered
Peter Richard Conte Plays the Wanamaker Organ
464 Ranks in the Macy's Department Store, Philadelphia
****4-star review in Choir & Organ!; "One big bundle of joy" reviews Organists' Review - [OAR-976]
$16.98

****Four-Star Review in Choir & Organ, Chris Bragg writes:
More than 30 years after his death, Virgil Fox’s legacy still looms large in sections of the American organ community. The extent to which that most flamboyant of personalities continues to be revered is reflected by this recording, a live performance by Peter Conte, recorded in 2012 on the Wanamaker organ over which he has presided since 1989 and with which Fox was also associated via performances and recordings. The concert marked the 100th anniversary of Fox’s birth, the programme including many works with which he was associated. As usual with Raven, the organ is excellently captured, the listener having a real sense of being towered over rather than dangling from the ceiling. Once again, the brilliant Conte demonstrates his unmatched mastery of the enormous and complex resources of this great ‘one-off’. Everything is translated aptly into the organ’s vernacular, from Bach’s Toccata in F to Reubke’s Sonata (with the final fugue really hair-raising in a Stokowskian kind of way). The 117-rank string division relishes Fauré, Elmore and Hebble while Fox’s signature Bach transcription Komm, süsser Tod, conceived in detail for the Wanamaker instrument, provides the fitting conclusion. A must for Fox fans? Perhaps; but while Conte absorbs some of Fox’s stylistic idiosyncrasies (for the occasion?), the histrionics are kept at bay, even if the tempi sometimes prompt the fur to fly. A heretical thought perhaps for Fox’s admirers, but Conte is surely a greater artist.

Roger Judd reviews in Organists' Review, September 2016
This CD is one big bundle of joy from first to last! peter Richard Conte is at one with this most extraordinary instrument, and he is totally in control of the repertoire. The Wanamaker organ defies description, and Conte gives the listener a kaleidoscopic tour of its many wonders. The String Organ, at 88 ranks, is bigger than most complete instruments, for example. I love the idea of a Tuba Mirabilis on an Ethereal Organ. In view of all the excesses, surprisingly, there is only one 32-ft reed . . .!
The pieces Conte presents were all favourites of Virgil Fox, and his style of playing is very much in the Fox mould. There is bravura a-plenty, and tenderness too when required. Just listen to the way Conte manages the instrument in the final track, Fox's arrangement of Bach Komm, süsser Tod -- brilliant I confess that I smiled a lot as I listened, and I very much hope you will too.

Virgil Fox Remembered

Virgil Fox, famously playing the Wanamaker Organ for the 1939 Philadelphia AGO National Convention, introduced the world to his creation “Come Sweet Death” based on a song by J. S. Bach. Peter Richard Conte commemorates the centennial of Fox’s birth in a live concert given on the Wanamaker Organ, playing works connected to Fox and from his repertoire on the 464-rank organ, the world's largest functioning pipe organ.

Gabriel Fauré, arr. Robert Hebble: Nocturne from Shylock
J. S. Bach: Toccata in F
Robert Elmore: Night Song (dedicated to Virgil Fox)
Henri Mulet: Tu es Petra
Sir Arthur Sullivan, arr. Peter Richard Conte: The Lost Chord
Robert Hebble: Homage to Fritz Kreisler (Londonderry Air)
Julius Reubke: Sonata on the 94th Psalm
J. S. Bach, arr. Fox: Come, Sweet Death, BWV 478

Virgil Fox Remembered
Famous for his prodigious musical gifts, Virgil Fox was an unprecedented 20th-century phenomenon. He possessed dual virtuosities as a musician and as a showman. Fox developed his musical skills with a technique that imaginatively used the full range of technical innovations in pipe organ building blossoming around him, including a new level of control over rapid changes in the selection of stops and other console devices. As a showman, he engaged a persona, programming acumen, and canny advisors who helped him to woo the public. The combination brought the masses to mid-century pipe organ concerts in numbers that had not occurred for a decade or longer – not since the previously enchanted public had abandoned municipal auditorium concert organs when the popular imagination latched onto advances in the phonograph, radio, and television. Fox recaptured the audiences and the magic they had experienced in that earlier time.

John Wanamaker (1838-1922) was also a master showman. He drew patrons to his department stores by installing pipe organs they longed to hear. The enormous response to the organ installed in the new Grand Court of the palatial Philadelphia store is especially celebrated. Erected between 1909 and 1911, it was the world’s largest organ, boasting 10,059 pipes when it was built by the Los Angeles Art Organ Company for the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair. It remained the largest for decades thereafter, because Wanamaker established an organ building workshop in the store and staffed it with as many as 40 full-time workers. They added 18,000 additional pipes by 1930.

John Wanamaker’s younger son Lewis Rodman Wanamaker (1863-1928) had talent. His instincts were for sophisticated and imported goods, and through his musical patronage he raised the level of artistic programs of the stores in New York and Philadelphia with a concert series (often with orchestra) overseen by music director and organist Alexander Russell (1880-1953). Dr. Russell became an impresario, concert manager, and the Henry Clay Frick Professor of Music and director of music at Princeton University (1917- 1935).

At age 14 in 1926, Virgil Fox played his first public concert before 2,500 people in a Cincinnati auditorium. He built his abilities on a church music career that had begun four years earlier, at age 10. While a high school student in Chicago, Fox studied three years with the German virtuoso and composer Wilhelm Middelschulte. He then attended Baltimore’s Peabody Conservatory, receiving the Artist Diploma and Church Organists’ Certificate in the Class of 1932, completing in one year a three-year course of study, and receiving the Harold Randolph Prize “for studentship and musical achievement.” He returned to Peabody in 1936 as head of the organ department and also as organist of Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church on its E. M. Skinner pipe organ.

Intuition suggests that Fox must have been drawn to the Wanamaker Grand Court organ long before his well-documented concert there for the 1939 AGO National Convention. Fox would have had ample opportunity to visit the Philadelphia organ during the ‘30s, when he was based in Baltimore. But it was in 1939 when he arranged for the Wanamaker Organ J. S. Bach’s Come, Sweet Death, taking full advantage of the unparalled String Division. More about this well known transcription appears in the Music Notes of the CD booklet.

Another known instance of Fox playing the Wana­maker Organ is a the recording made during the 1940 Republican Convention that is offered in a series of early Wanamaker Organ recordings by the Friends of the Wanamaker Organ. Some other instances include Fox’s appearance on a Lenten concert series mounted at the store during the 1950s, and at several concerts played during the 1960s.

Fox gave thousands of organ recitals through­out his career, made scores of phonograph records on major labels, primarily RCA Victor, Capitol, and Columbia, but also several others. Particularly cherished among them is a famous recording made by Fox in 1964 on the Wanamaker Organ for the audiophile Command label and currently available on CD and DVD from the Friends of the Wanamaker Organ. The album gloried in organ transcriptions at a time when they were antithetical to a prevailing aesthetic, and might be credited with launching a revival.

Virgil Fox and the Wanamaker Grand Court Organ in Philadelphia existed together in the same age, and were almost the same age in years, Fox having been born in 1912 and the Grand Court Organ having been inaugurated in 1911. In 2012, the centennial of Virgil Fox’s birth was celebrated on October 12 with a grand concert played by Peter Richard Conte when the tracks on this CD were recorded. The concert was also mounted as a memorial to two people who had been closely associated with the Wanamaker Grand Court Organ: organist Carlo Curley (August 24, 1952 – August 11, 2012) and Edith Grace Brickman (1920 – June 8, 2008) who donated more than $300,000 toward restoration of the organ’s 42-stop Orchestral Division in memory of her husband, Dr. W. James Brickman (1919-2000). The Brickmans frequently visited the store to enjoy the organ.

Notes on the Music
Gabriel Fauré (1845-1924): Nocturne from Shylock, transcribed by Robert Hebble

For a new adaptation of Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice to open in Paris on December 17, 1889, playwright Edmond Haraucourt (1856–1941) developed a script named Shylock, “a comedy in three acts and seven tableaus.” Gabriel Fauré was commissioned by the director of the Odeon theater to compose musical accompaniment to the play, which had a respectable run of 56 performances. Some of the music was played as the action ensued on stage, and other parts were inserted as musical numbers in the play. Omitting some of the music, Fauré produced an orchestral suite of six movements titled Shylock and published in 1897 as op. 57. By 1899, transcriptions of the popular score had been produced for piano four hands and for violin and piano. Faure’s melody for the Nocturne movement, evoking Shakespeare’s words, “How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank . . .,” comes to the organ via the arrangement by Robert Hebble (b. 1934), recorded by Fox on the Wanamaker Organ in 1964.

J. S. Bach (1685-1750): Toccata in F, BWV 540
A favorite of audiences, this Toccata composed either around 1714 or by 1723 includes a high pedal note F which did not exist on pedal keyboards of the time except in a very few organs. Musicologists speculate as to why Bach included the note, presuming he composed it for a specific organ that included the rarely available note. They have found that two such organs existed, one conveniently available to Bach during his time in Weimar, 1708-1717, and the other from his next job, in Cöthen, 1717-1723. The grand work must have greatly impressed the audience at its first performance, probably by Bach himself, and has impressed audiences ever since. Even Brahms is known to have played the work at least nine times for others, including Richard Wagner. Virgil Fox riveted the attention of popular culture with it in concerts and especially in his best-selling recordings of the mid-20th century: the Command LP made at Riverside Church in 1963 and the 1974 “Heavy Organ” RCA Victor LP recorded in a live performance at Carnegie Hall.

Robert Elmore (1913-1945): Night Song

Composer, virtuoso organist, church musician, university music professor, and contemporary of Virgil Fox, Robert Elmore dedicated this work to Fox and published it in 1963. Elmore, who studied organ from ages 13 to 20 with Pietro Yon, organist of St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York, was the organist of the Philadelphia Orchestra and also played at various churches as well as an occasional outing on the Wanamaker Grand Court Organ. Several of his orchestral works were first performed by the Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski.

Henri Mulet (1878–1967): Tu es Petra et Portæ Inferni non Prævalebunt Adversus Te
The words of Jesus Christ to St. Peter as reported in the Bible by St. Matthew, Chapter 16, Verse 18, “And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it,” are the momentous inspiration for Mulet’s most famous composition. In the score, composed by 1919 and published in 1920, a truncated Latin version of Christ’s words serve as the title, translated, “You are the rock and the gates of hell shall not prevail against you.” The work is the tenth and final piece in the publication, Esquisses Byzantines (Byzantine Sketches), dedicated “in memory of the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Montmartre, 1914-1919.” Mulet was the son of the basilica’s musician and grew up on the hill in Paris, Montmartre, at the top of which the enormous Sacre-Coeur Basilica was constructed 1875-1919 in the Byzantine architectural style. During his youth, Henri played harmonium in the basilica (the pipe organ would not arrive until 1919, the year of the baslica’s completion). Mulet was a highly gifted, respected and very well educated musician (a student of Guilmant, Widor and Vierne) of great but strange and mystic spirituality. As organist, he worked in several important Paris churches and had been the choirmaster at Sacre-Coeur. Becoming ever more distressed over liturgical and musical reforms begun in the 1920s, Mulet abandoned Paris in 1937 and became organist at the cathedral in Draguignan (southeastern France) until 1958. He destroyed his musical manuscripts and lived 30 years as a recluse in a Draguignan monastery until his death at age 89. Virgil Fox first recorded Tu es Petra in 1941 on the Girard College for an RCA 78 RPM record, then recorded it again in 1959 at the Riverside Church for RCA.

Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900): The Lost Chord

Seated one day at the organ,
I was weary and ill at ease,
And my fingers wandered idly
Over the noisy keys.

I know not what I was playing,
Or what I was dreaming then;
But I struck one chord of music,
Like the sound of a great Amen.


Perhaps the most popular poet in mid- 19th-century England was Adelaide Anne Procter (1825-1864), who had published her seven-verse The Lost Chord in 1858. Arthur Sullivan composed music to fit the verse, inspired by the poem and the situation as he sat at his dying brother’s sickbed on January 13, 1877. Fred died five days later. The song was published widely to great commercial success, becoming well known in England and the United States. Arthur Sullivan was already famous for such tunes as Onward Christian Soldiers and large symphonic works and operettas. Peter Richard Conte realized the performance recorded here from his own adaptation for the Wanamaker Organ.

Robert Hebble (b. 1934): Homage to Fritz Kreisler (Londonderry Air)

Virgil Fox appointed Robert Hebble as his assistant at The Riverside Church, New York, in 1950 and the two collaborated for the rest of Virgil’s life. Hebble composes original music and transcribes famously. His many settings of hymn tunes are played widely, and he is an accomplished organist. He is a graduate of Yale and Juilliard, and studied with Roger Sessions, Nadia Boulanger in Paris, and others. The great violinist Fritz Kreisler (1875-1962) played the traditional Irish tune Londonderry Air (aka Danny Boy) in concerts and made a famous recording of it for solo violin as well as arranging it for piano trio (piano, violin, cello). Robert Hebble arranged it for organ and Virgil Fox recorded it at the Riverside Church on the 1958 Capitol LP, Silhouettes.

Julius Reubke (1834-1858): Sonata on Psalm 94

Dead from tuberculosis at age 24, Julius Reubke composed in his short life the greatest Romantic organ work before or since, at least in the minds of many. He completed the Sonata on the 94th Psalm in April, 1857, and played the premiere on the magnificent Ladegast organ at Merseburg Cathedral on June 17. (The organ is still there, recently restored.) A favorite pupil of Franz Liszt from 1856, he attended the Berlin Conservatory from age 17 in 1851, having moved from his family home in a small village in the Hartz mountains of Germany, where his father, Adolph Reubke, was an organbuilder and piano maker. Virgil Fox recorded the work for RCA Victor in 1953 on the large pipe organ located in the huge castle-like home built in Gloucester, Massachusetts, 1926-29 by the eccentric and greatly successful American inventor and friend of Fox, John Hays Hammond, Jr. In 1975, Fox purchased the building for $68,000 from the Archdiocese of Boston, to which Hammond, who died in 1975, had bequeathed it.
On the opening page of the published score, Reubke quotes (in German) verses of the 94th Psalm associated with each of the four movements:
Movement 1, Grave
1 O Lord God, to whom vengeance belongeth; O God, to whom vengeance belongeth, shew thyself.
2 Lift up thyself, thou judge of the earth: render a reward to the proud.
Movement 2, Allegro con fuoco
3 Lord, how long shall the wicked, how long shall the wicked triumph?
6 They slay the widow and the stranger, and murder the fatherless.
7 Yet they say, The Lord shall not see, neither shall the God of Jacob regard it.
Movement 3, Adagio
17 Unless the Lord had been my help, my soul had almost dwelt in silence.
19 In the multitude of my thoughts within me thy comforts delight my soul.
Movement 4, Allegro
22 But the Lord is my defence; and my God is the rock of my refuge.
23 And he shall bring upon them their own iniquity, and shall cut them off in their own wickedness; yea, the Lord our God shall cut them off.

J. S. Bach: Komm, süßer Tod (Come, Sweet Death), set for organ by Virgil Fox
Komm, süßer Tod, komm selge Ruh! (Come, sweet death, come blessed Rest!) was composed by Bach as a song for solo voice and continuo to include in Musical­isches Gesangbuch published in 1736 by Breitkopf in Leipzig. The song is cataloged in Bach’s works as BWV 478. While trying out repertoire for his concert to be given months hence on the Wan­a­maker Organ dur­ing the 1939 National Convention of the American Guild of Organists, Fox was encouraged by the assistant organ curator, Henry A. Baecker to adapt this Bach work for the Wanamaker Organ in a manner similar to Leopold Stokowski’s 1926 adaptation of it for the entire Philadelphia Orchestra, as recorded in 1933 on an RCA Victor phonograph record which Baecker owned. Fox had been frustrated in a quest of several sessions at the organ to find a suitable way to play a Bach chorale prelude on the Wanamaker Organ, which some close to the convention had advised. Following Baecker’s 2 a.m. suggestion after days of effort at the Wanamaker console, Fox accompanied Baecker to his home several blocks away, where Fox heard the record (as did Baecker’s previously sleeping wife and father-in-law). Encouraged, Fox and Baecker returned to the store at 3 a.m. when Fox began his adaptation of the piece, which continued for eight succeeding Tuesday nights at the store. Between his weekly train rides to Philadelphia from Baltimore, where he was chairman of the organ department at the Peabody Conservatory, Fox prepared the concert on the Skinner organ at Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church. Fox published the arrangement in 1941 and also recorded it for RCA Victor on the E. M. Skinner organ at Girard College, Philadelphia, then recorded later at the Riverside Church for the 1955 RCA LP, Virgil Fox Plays Bach.

Peter Richard Conte
Peter Richard Conte is the Wanamaker Grand Court Organist, performing concerts twice daily, six days each week, on the largest fully-functioning musical instrument in the world. Appointed in 1989, he is the fourth person to hold that title since the organ first played in 1911. He is also Principal Organist of Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, and, since 1991, has served as Choirmaster and Organist of Saint Clement’s Church, Philadelphia, where he directs a professional choir in an extensive music program in the Anglo-Catholic tradition.

Among the few organists who broadcast regular radio programs, Peter Richard Conte has two two of them: The Wanamaker Organ Hour airing on first Sundays monthly at 5 p.m. Eastern time (via the internet at WRTI.org); and his weekly Grand Court concert is streamed live on YesterdayUSA dot com on Wednesdays at 7 p.m. He has been featured several times on National Public Radio and on ABC television’s Good Morning America and World News Tonight.  He performs extensively throughout the United States and Canada under the management of Phillip Truckenbrod Concert Artists, and has appeared as a featured artist at American Guild of Organists National and Regional Conventions, and at Organ Historical Society Conventions. He has performed with the Philadelphia Orchestra, Peter Nero and the Philly Pops, New Jersey’s Symphony in C, and with other orchestras around the country.

Highly regarded as a skillful performer and arranger of organ transcriptions, Peter Richard Conte is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of Organ at Westminster Choir College of Rider University, Princeton, New Jersey, where he teaches Organ Improvisation. He is the 2008 recipient of the Distinguished Alumni Award from the Indiana University School of Music, Bloomington. The Philadelphia Music Alliance awarded him a Bronze Plaque on the Avenue of the Arts in 2011. His many recordings appear on the Gothic, JAV, ProOrgano, Dorian, DTR, OHS, and Raven labels.

The Grand Court Organ
Built by the Los Angeles Art Organ Company for the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair (Louisiana Purchase Exposition), the Wanamaker Organ was designed by renowned organ architect George Ashdown Audsley (1838- 1925), author of The Art of Organ-Building, a lavishly illustrated and exquisitely printed, two-volume tome published 1904 and still referenced frequently. Containing 10,059 pipes, the organ was conceived and built on such high standards of quality and size that its $105,000 cost of construction led its builder into bankruptcy.

Following the World’s Fair, the organ was stored until 1909 when Wanamaker’s sent organbuilder George W. Till (1866-1962) to examine it and then authorized him to buy it for the Philadelphia department store. Requiring two years to install after its arrival in 13 freight cars, The Grand Organ was first heard in the store’s seven-story atrium on June 22, 1911, at the moment when England’s King George V was crowned at Westminster Abbey. At the close of the store’s first year of business, the organ was prominently featured when the President of the United States, William Howard Taft, officiated at a ceremony of dedication.

Despite the immense size of the organ, which vied with one or two other organs as being the largest in the world in 1911, the tone was judged inadequate to fill the huge court. William Boone Fleming (1849-1940), a Boston-trained organbuilder who moved to California in 1900 and supervised construction of the original organ and its move to the Philadelphia store, was hired to direct a staff of 40 full-time workers to enlarge the organ in a new workshop established in the attic. He retired in 1927 at age 79. George W. Till was also on the staff and remained so until 1938, primarily addressing tonal matters.

Lavish construction and elegant work­man­ship makes the Wanamaker Organ both a tonal wonder and a monument to superb craftsmanship. The largest pipe is made of flaw­less Oregon sugar-pine three inches thick and more than 32 feet long—so large that a Shetland Pony was once posed inside for publicity photos. More than 8,000 pipes were added to the organ between 1911 and 1917, and from 1924 to 1930 an additional 10,000 pipes were in­stalled, bring­ing the total number of pipes to 28,482. Commanding these huge resources is a massive console with six keyboards and 729 color-coded stop tablets. There are 168 piston buttons under the keyboards and 42 foot con­trols. The console weighs 2.5 tons; the entire instrument weighs 287 tons.

During the lifetimes of John Wanamaker and his son Rodman, the world’s foremost musicians were brought to the store for brilliant after-bus­iness-hours concerts, among them Marcel Dupré, Louis Vierne and Nadia Boulanger from France; Fer­nando Germani and Marco Enrico Bos­si from Italy, and Alfred Hollins from Scotland. Sales counters were removed for seating. At a 1919 Musicians’ Assembly, virtuoso Charles M. Courboin joined Leopold Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orches­tra to perform before a standing-room-only crowd of 15,000. Courboin (1884-1973) , a Belgian organ virtuoso who moved to the United States in 1904, played frequently at the New York and Philadelphia stores and largely developed the tonal ideas incorporated into the second enlargement of the Grand Court Organ.

Great or­ganists have continued to appear at the store. In 1986, the evening-concert tradition was continued as Keith Chapman marked the Wana­maker Or­gan’s 75th anniversary; Peter Richard Conte presented a 90th anniversary concert in 2001. In 2008, Macy’s celebrated its 150th anniversary with a Philadelphia Orchestra concert under Maestro Rossen Milanov that was co-sponsored by the Friends. Joseph Jongen’s Symphonie Concertante  was presented for the first time with the organ and orchestra for which it had been written. Peter Richard Conte presided at the console.

The Wanamaker Grand Court Organ at Macy’s has been thril­ling Philadelphia shoppers and visitors every business day since 1911. Eighty years later, in the fall of 1991, an organization of Friends was formed to support the preservation and musical mission of this American treasure. Friends of the Wanamaker Organ, Inc., is a worldwide group of sponsors and supporters formed to encourage the preservation and musical mis­sion of this American masterpiece. A modest introduction contribution entitles the donor to become a Friend and to receive four issues of The Stentor, the Soci­ety’s quarterly newsletter and restoration update. Google the Friends of the Wanamaker Organ website.

The Wanamaker Grand Court Organ, Philadelphia

MAIN PEDAL ORGAN (5"-22") 50 ranks, 1665 pipes
    64    Gravissima (resultant) (wood)    25 pipes
    32    Contra Diaphone (wood)    32 pipes
    16    Diaphone (wood)    12 pipes
    8    Stentorphone (metal)    12 pipes
    32    First Contra Open Diapason    (wood) 32 pipes
    32    Second Contra Open Diapason    (metal) (Great)
    32    Contra Bourdon (wood)    32 pipes
    16    First Open Diapason (wood)    32 pipes
    16    Second Open Diapason (metal)    32 pipes
    16    Third Open Diapason (wood)    32 pipes
    16    Violone (wood)    32 pipes
    16    Gamba (metal)    32 pipes
    16    Dulciana (metal)     (Choir)
    16    Bourdon (wood)    32 pipes
    16    Soft Bourdon (wood)     (Swell)
    16    Open Flute (wood)    32 pipes
    8    Second Tibia (wood)    12 pipes
    4    Second Tibia (wood)    12 pipes
    10-2/3    Open Quint (metal)    32 pipes
    10-2/3    Stopped Quint (wood)    32 pipes
    8    First Tibia (wood)    32 pipes
    8    Open Diapason (wood)    32 pipes
    8    Octave Soft Bourdon (wood)    32 pipes
    8    Octave (metal)    32 pipes
    8    Soft Flute (wood)    32 pipes
    4    Soft Flute (wood)    32 pipes
    4    First Tibia (wood)    32 pipes
    8    First Cello (metal)    32 pipes
    8    Second Cello (metal)    32 pipes
    4    Principal (metal)    32 pipes
    4    Octave (metal)    32 pipes
    32    Grand Mutation X (metal, 1,5,8,10,12,15,17,19,22,24)
             220 pipes
    32    Mixture VIII (metal, 1,5,8,10,12,15,17,19)    (Great)
    16    Mixture VI (metal) (Great) (this is the same
         mixture as above, less the 16 Open Diapason
         and the 10 Quint)
        Mixture VII (metal, 10,12,15,17,19,22,24)    224 pipes
    32    Contra Bombarde (wood)    32 pipes
    16    Bombarde (wood/metal)    12 pipes
    8    Bombarde (metal)    12 pipes
    16    Trombone (metal)    32 pipes
    16    Tuba (metal)    32 pipes
    16    Euphonium (metal)    32 pipes
    16    Contra Fagotto (metal)    32 pipes
    8    Octave Fagotto (metal)    32 pipes
    8    Tromba (metal)    32 pipes
    4    Clarion (metal)    32 pipes

Each of the following pedal divisions is grouped with the main pedal stop tablets, but enclosed in the chamber with its respective manual organ.

ETHEREAL PEDAL ORGAN 4 ranks, 128 pipes
    32    Acoustic Bass (wood)     32 pipes
            (16 Diapason below plus independent 10)
    16    Diapason (wood)    32 pipes
    16    Bombarde (metal)    32 pipes
    8    Bombarde (metal)    32 pipes

ECHO PEDAL ORGAN 2 ranks, 64 pipes
    16    Open Diapason (wood)    32 pipes
    16    Stopped Diapason (wood)    32 pipes

STRING PEDAL ORGAN 17 ranks, 652 pipes
    32    Contra Diaphone (wood) (24")    32 pipes
    16    Diaphone (wood)    12 pipes
    8    Diaphone (wood)    12 pipes
    32    Contra Gamba (metal) (24")    32 pipes
    16    Gamba (metal)    12 pipes
    8    Gamba (metal)    12 pipes
    16    First Violone (wood)    32 pipes
    8    First Violone (wood)    12 pipes
    16    Second Violone (metal)    32 pipes
    8    Second Violone (metal)    12 pipes
    4    Violone (metal)    12 pipes
    16    Viol (metal)    32 pipes
    8     Viol (metal)    12 pipes
    16    Viol (metal; tuned slightly sharp)    32 pipes
    8    Viol (metal; tuned slightly sharp)    12 pipes
    32    Mixture XII 32’ Contra Diaphone plus the following:
    16    Mutation Diaphone (metal)    32 pipes
    16    Mutation Viol (metal)    32 pipes
    10-2/3    Mutation Viol (metal)    32 pipes
    8    Mutation Viol (metal)    32 pipes
    5-1/3    Mutation Viol (metal)    32 pipes
    4    Mutation Viol (metal)    32 pipes
    2-2/3    Mutation Viol (metal)    32 pipes
    2    Mutation Viol (metal)    32 pipes
    1-3/5    Mutation Viol (metal)    32 pipes
    1-1/3    Mutation Viol (metal)    32 pipes
    4/5    Mutation Viol (metal)    32 pipes

VOX CHORUS PEDAL ORGAN 2 ranks, 64 pipes
    16    First Vox Humana (metal)    32 pipes
    16    Second Vox Humana (metal)     32 pipes

CHOIR ORGAN (5") 24 ranks, 1452 pipes
    16    Double Dulciana (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Dulciana (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Open Diapason (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Violin Diapason (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Stopped Diapason (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Concert Flute (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Salicional (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Quintadena (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Vox Angelica (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Vox Celeste (metal)    49 pipes
    8    Keraulophone (metal)    61 pipes
    4    Forest Flute (wood)    61 pipes
    4    Salicet (metal)    61 pipes
    2    Piccolo (metal)    61 pipes
    16    Soft Cornet VI (metal; 22,15,17,19,22,26)    366 pipes
    16    Saxophone (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Saxophone (metal)    61 pipes
    8    English Horn (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Clarinet (metal)    61 pipes

GREAT ORGAN (5"-16")
Unenclosed Great 28 ranks, 1696 pipes
    32    Sub Principal (metal)    61 pipes
    16    Contra Gamba (metal)    61 pipes
    16    Double Diapason (metal)    61 pipes
    10-2/3    Sub Quint (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Diapason Phonon (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Diapason Major (metal)    61 pipes
    8    First Diapason (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Second Diapason (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Third Diapason (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Fourth Diapason (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Gamba II (metal)    122 pipes
    8    Major Tibia (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Mezzo Tibia (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Minor Tibia (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Double Flute (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Nasard Flute II (metal)    122 pipes
    4    Octave (metal)    61 pipes
        Mutation VIII (32’ series)    476 pipes
    8    Harmonic Trumpet (metal)    61 pipes
Enclosed Great 29 ranks, 1159 pipes (Expressive, in Choir)
    8    Covered Tibia (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Harmonic Flute (metal)    61 pipes
    5-1/3    Quint (metal)    61 pipes
    4    Principal (metal)    61 pipes
    4    Harmonic Flute (metal)    61 pipes
    3-1/5    Tierce (metal)    61 pipes
    2-2/3    Octave Quint (metal)    61 pipes
    2    Super Octave (metal)    61 pipes
        Mixture VII (metal, 12,15,19,22,24,26,29)    427 pipes
    16    Double Trumpet (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Tuba (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Trumpet (metal)    61 pipes
    4    Harmonic Clarion (metal)    61 pipes
Great Chorus (Unenclosed) 14"-16", 11 rks, 779 pipes
    8    Chorus Diapason Magna (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Chorus Stentorphone (wood/metal)    73 pipes
    8    Chorus First Diapason (wood/metal)    73 pipes
    8    Chorus Second Diapason (wood/metal)    73 pipes
    8    Chorus Third Diapason (wood)    73 pipes
    8    Chorus Major Flute (wood)    73 pipes
    8    Chorus Double Flute (wood)    73 pipes
    8    Chorus Gamba (metal)    73 pipes
    4    Chorus Octave (metal)    73 pipes
    4    Chorus Flute (wood)    73 pipes
    2-2/3    Chorus Nasard (metal)    61 pipes

SWELL ORGAN (5"-22") 53 ranks, 3312 pipes
    16    Double Diapason (metal)    61 pipes
    16    Soft Bourdon (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Stentorphone (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Horn Diapason (wood/metal)    61 pipes
    8    Violin Diapason (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Bell Flute (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Orchestral Flute (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Harmonic Flute (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Grand Flute II (wood)    122  pipes
    8    Double Flute (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Tibia Dura (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Clarabella (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Melodia (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Soft Dulciana (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Gamba Celeste II (metal)    122 pipes
    8    Gamba (metal)    61 pipes
    5-1/3    Quint Bourdon (wood)    61 pipes
    4    Harmonic Flute II (metal)    122 pipes
    4    First Octave (metal)    61 pipes
    4    Second Octave (metal)    61 pipes
    2-2/3    Nazard (metal, from String Mixture)    
    2    Piccolo (metal)    61 pipes
        String Mixture V (metal, 15,19,22,26,29)    265 pipes
        Mixture VI (metal, 12,15,17,19,22,26)    366 pipes
    16    Bass Tuba    61 pipes
    16    Bass Trombone    61 pipes
    16    Contra Fagotto (metal)    61 pipes
    16    Double Oboe Horn (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Tuba    61 pipes
    8    Trombone (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Oboe (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Fagotto (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Trumpet (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Horn (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Bassett Horn (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Clarinet II (metal)    122 pipes
    8    Clarinet (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Vox Humana II (metal)    122 pipes
    4    Harmonic Clarion (metal)    61 pipes
    4    Musette (metal)    80 pipes

ORIGINAL STRING 18 ranks, 1098 pipes
    16    Contra Bass (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Violoncello (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Viol (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Viol (metal, tuned slightly sharp)    61 pipes
    8    Viola (metal)    61 pipes
    5-1/3    Quint Viol (metal)    61 pipes
    4    Octave Viol (metal)    61 pipes
    4    Violina (metal)    61 pipes
    3-1/5    Tierce (metal)    61 pipes
        Corroborating Mixture V (metal, 15,17,19,22,26)
            305 pipes
        Viol Cornet IV (metal, 12,15,17,22)    244 pipes

SOLO ORGAN (15") 51 ranks, 3713 pipes
    16    Double Open Diapason (metal)    73 pipes
    16    Grand Viol (metal)    73 pipes
    8    First Diapason (wood/metal)    73 pipes
    8    Second Diapason (wood/metal)    73 pipes
    8    Third Diapason (wood/metal)    73 pipes
    8    Violin Diapason (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Viol (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Viol (metal, tuned slightly sharp)    63 pipes
    8    Harmonic Flute (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Tierce Flute II (metal)    146 pipes
    8    Chimney Flute (metal)    73 pipes
    4    Harmonic Flute (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Clarabella (wood)    73 pipes
    8    Gemshorn (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Nasard Gamba II (metal)    146 pipes
    8    Grand Gamba (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Grand Gamba (metal; sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Quintaphone (metal)    73 pipes
    5-1/3    Quint Diapason (metal)    73 pipes
    4    Octave (metal)    73 pipes
    3-1/5    Harmonic Tierce (metal)    73 pipes
    2-2/3    Twelfth Harmonic (metal)    73 pipes
    2    Piccolo (metal)    73 pipes
        Grand Mixture VI (metal; 5,8,12,15,19,22)    438 pipes
        Mixture VI (metal, 12,15,19,22,24,26)    438 pipes
        Mixture V (metal, 8,12,15,17,19)    365 pipes
    16    Double Trumpet (metal)    73 pipes
    16    Tuba (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Trumpet (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Soft Tuba (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Cornopean (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Ophicleide (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Musette (metal)    73 pipes
    4    Ophicleide (metal)    73 pipes
    4    Tuba (metal)    73 pipes

ETHEREAL ORGAN (25") Fifth Man. 23 ranks, 1670 pipes
    16    Bourdon (wood)    23 pipes
    8    First Open Diapason (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Second Open Diapason (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Clear Flute (wood)    73 pipes
    8    Harmonic Flute (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Double Flute (wood)    73 pipes
    8    Grand Gamba (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Gamba (metal; tuned slightly sharp)    64 pipes
    5    Quint Flute (wood)    73 pipes
    4    Octave (metal)    73 pipes
    4    Harmonic Flute (metal)    73 pipes
    2-2/3    Twelfth Harmonic (metal)    73 pipes
    2    Harmonic Piccolo (metal)    73 pipes
        Mixture IV (metal, 5,8,12,15)    292 pipes
    16    Tuba Profunda (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Tuba Mirabilis (metal)    73 pipes
    8    French Trumpet (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Grand Clarinet (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Post Horn (metal, 15” was 20")    73 pipes
    4    Tuba Clarion (metal)    73 pipes

ECHO ORGAN (5") 23 ranks, 2013 pipes
        The Echo is an ancillary organ and
        may be played on any manual.
    16    Bourdon (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Open Diapason (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Violin Diapason (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Stopped Diapason (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Night Horn (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Clarabella (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Melodia (wood)    61 pipes
    8    Orchestral Viol (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Soft Viol (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Soft Viol (metal; tuned slightly sharp)    61 pipes
    8    Unda Maris II (wood/metal)    210 pipes
    5-1/3    Open Quint (metal)    61 pipes
    4    Octave (metal)    61 pipes
    4    Harmonic Flute (metal)    61 pipes
    4    Mellow Flute (wood)    61 pipes
        Mixture VI (metal, 5,8,12,15,17,19)    366 pipes
        Cornet Mixture V (metal, 12,15,17,19,22)    305 pipes
    16    Double Trumpet (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Trumpet (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Capped Oboe (metal)    61 pipes
    8    Euphone (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Vox Humana II (metal)    122 pipes

ORCHESTRAL ORGAN (15") 22 ranks, 2312 pipes
        The Orchestral division is an ancillary organ
        and may be  played on any manual.
    16    Contra Quintadena (wood/metal)    73 pipes
    8    Duophone (wood)    73 pipes
    8    Tibia (wood)    73 pipes
    8    Covered Tibia (wood)    73 pipes
    8    Concert Flute (wood)    73 pipes
    8    Harmonic Flute (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Mellow Flute (wood)    73 pipes
    8    String Flute (wood)    73 pipes
    8    Double Flute (wood)    73 pipes
    8    Hollow Flute (wood)    73 pipes
    4    Octave (metal)    73 pipes
    4    Harmonic Flute (metal)    73 pipes
    4    Orchestral Flute (metal)    61 pipes
    4    Covered Flute (wood/metal)    73 pipes
    2    Harmonic Piccolo (metal)    61 pipes
    16    Bassoon (metal)    73 pipes
    16    English Horn (metal)    73 pipes
    16    Bass Clarinet (metal)    73 pipes
    16    Bass Saxophone (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Oboe (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Bassett Horn (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Bassoon (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Orchestral Clarinet (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Saxophone (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Orchestral Trumpet (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Orchestral Oboe (metal)    73 pipes
    8    First French Horn (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Second French Horn (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Third French Horn (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Kinura (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Muted Cornet (metal)    73 pipes
    8    English Horn (metal)    73 pipes

VOX HUMANA CHORUS (15”) 8 ranks, 572 pipes
    16    Vox Humana (metal)    73 pipes
    8    First Vox Humana (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Second Vox Humana (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Third Vox Humana (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Fourth Vox Humana (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Fifth Vox Humana (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Sixth Vox Humana (metal)    73 pipes
    8    Seventh Vox Humana (metal)    61 pipes

STRING ORGAN (15") 88 ranks, 6340 metal pipes
        The String division is an ancillary organ and
        may be played on any manual.
    16    Violone    73 pipes
    16    First Contra Gamba    73 pipes
    16    Second Contra Gamba    73 pipes
    16    First Contra Viol    73 pipes
    16    Second Contra Viol    73 pipes
    16    First Viol    73 pipes
    16    Second Viol    73 pipes
    8    Violin Diapason    73 pipes
    8    Gamba    73 pipes
    8    Nasard Gamba II    146 pipes
    8    Nazard Gamba II (sharp)    146 pipes
    8    First Cello (natural)    73 pipes
    8    First Cello (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    First Cello (flat)    73 pipes
    8    Second Cello (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Second Cello (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Second Cello (flat)    73 pipes
    8    First Orchestral Violin (natural)    73 pipes
    8    First Orchestral Violin (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    First Orchestral Violin (flat)    73 pipes
    8    Second Orchestral Violin (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Second Orchestral Violin (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Second Orchestral Violin (flat)    73 pipes
    8    Third Orchestral Violin (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Third Orchestral Violin (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Third Orchestral Violin (flat)    73 pipes
    8    Fourth Orchestral Violin (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Fourth Orchestral Violin (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Fourth Orchestral Violin (flat)    73 pipes
    8    Fifth Orchestral Violin (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Fifth Orchestral Violin (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Fifth Orchestral Violin (flat)    73 pipes
    8    Sixth Orchestral Violin (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Sixth Orchestral Violin (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Sixth Orchestral Violin (flat)    73 pipes
    8    First Muted Violin (natural)    73 pipes
    8    First Muted Violin (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    First Muted Violin (flat)    73 pipes
    8    Second Muted Violin (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Second Muted Violin (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Second Muted Violin (flat)    73 pipes
    8    Third Muted Violin (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Third Muted Violin (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Third Muted Violin (flat)    73 pipes
    8    Fourth Muted Violin (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Fourth Muted Violin (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Fourth Muted Violin (flat)    73 pipes
    8    Fifth Muted Violin (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Fifth Muted Violin (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Fifth Muted Violin (flat)    73 pipes
    8    Sixth Muted Violin (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Sixth Muted Violin (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Sixth Muted Violin (flat)    73 pipes
    4    First Orchestral Violina (natural)    73 pipes
    4    First Orchestral Violina (sharp)    73 pipes
    4    Second Orchestral Violina (natural)    73 pipes
    4    Second Orchestral Violina  (sharp)    73 pipes
    5-1/3    Quint Violina (natural)    73 pipes
    5-1/3    Quint Violina (sharp)    73 pipes
    3-1/5    Tierce Violina (natural)    73 pipes
    3-1/5    Tierce Violina (sharp)    73 pipes
    2-2/3    Nasard Violina (natural)    73 pipes
    2-2/3    Nasard Violina (sharp)    73 pipes
    2    Super Violina (natural)    61 pipes
    2    Super Violina (sharp)    61 pipes
    8    First Dulciana (natural)    73 pipes
    8    First Dulciana (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Second Dulciana (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Second Dulciana (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Third Dulciana (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Third Dulciana (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Fourth Dulciana (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Fourth Dulciana (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Fifth Dulciana (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Fifth Dulciana (sharp)    73 pipes
    8    Sixth Dulciana (natural)    73 pipes
    8    Sixth Dulciana (sharp)    73 pipes
    4    First Octave Dulciana (natural)    73 pipes
    4    First Octave Dulciana (sharp)    73 pipes
    4    Second Octave Dulciana (nat’l.)    23 pipes
    4    Second Octave Dulciana (sharp)    73 pipes
        Dulciana Mutation V (selective: 12,15,19,22,26)    
            305 pipes

PERCUSSION ORGAN
Each stop may be coupled to any manual without affecting other stops in the division.
Major Chimes: 37 tubular chimes, tenor C to c1
Minor Chimes: 25 tubular chimes, tenor G to g
(In 2015, A=435 Aeolian Chimes replaced anA=440 set of J. C. Deagan orchestra chimesthat replaced a “plunky” set of Beech chimes in 1959.)
Celesta: 49 metal bars, tenor C to c2 (Mustel Celesta)
Gongs: 49 metal bars, tenor C to c2 pneumatic action, with gradated brass resonators resembling water canteens
Piano II: 88 notes. (This is an upright piano with an attached vacuum action.)
Metalophone: 49 metal bars, tenor C to c2
Piano I (Prepared)
Harp I
Harp II (Prepared)
The Echo division has a single chime note that is played by a Choir-manual piston.
Chinese Gong: An 82”-diameter gong has been acquired and eventually will be played via a toe stud.

STENTOR ORGAN (15"-100") Sixth manual
    16    Tuba Magna (Centennial Tuba) 25”
    8    Tuba Magna    61 pipes
These are the only unenclosed high-pressure manual reed stops in the Wanamaker Organ. The original Stentor division, with pressures as high as 100" and a Pedal department featuring a 64’ Diaphonic Bombarde, was never installed. The Stentor manual is in operation, so that any of the ancillary divisions may be played from it. Some manual stops that are suitable for solo work are duplexed on the Stentor keyboard, so that they may be played against alternate registrations on their home divisions.

Virgil Fox Remembered<BR>Peter Richard Conte Plays the Wanamaker Organ<BR>464 Ranks in the Macy\'s Department Store, Philadelphia<BR><font color = red><I>****4-star review in Choir & Organ!; \"One big bundle of joy\" reviews Organists\' Review</I></font>
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