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Works for Violin & Organ, Vol. 6, An International Collection
The Murray / Lohuis Duo - [OAR-923]

Reviews Charles Huddleston Heaton in The Diapason:
Fans of the previous recordings will know they are in for a musical treat, both in the performances and the unusual repertoire involved, such as Juhan Aavik's Fantasie or Gustav Hagg's Adagio. Followers of the estimable duos previous CDs will expect balance, repertoire and musicianship to be first-rate, as certainly is the case here. The first six selections are recorded on the Aeolian-Skinner organ at St. Stephen's Episcopal Church, Richmond, the remaining four on the Austin at Reveille United Methodist Church. A setting of "That Lonesome Valley," a commission to Wilbur Held by the AGO for a Region V convention, is elaborate and musically worthwhile, as is a beautiful version of Fosters "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair," arranged by Leo Dubensky. An exuberant A la Valse by Victor Herbert (dedicated to Fritz Kreisler) concludes this musical disc.

An International Collection presents nine compositions for violin and organ by composers of the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries and whose countries of origin span a third of the globe: Estonia, Italy, The Netherlands, Armenia, Sweden, Germany, Ireland, England, and the United States.

Ottorino Respighi (1879-1936): Aria *
Juhan Aavik (1884-1982): Fantasie, Op. 130 (1955) *
Cor Kint (1890-1944): Hymne, Op. 8 *
Eduard Ivanovich Baghdasaryan (1922-1987): Three Medieval Chants *
Gustav Hägg (1867-1925): Adagio, Op. 34 (1909) *
Günther Raphael (1903-1960): Largo aus der Violinsonate, Op. 12, Nr. 1 für Violine und Orgel (1924)*
Derek E. Healey (b. 1936): Sonata for Virginia, Op. 94 (2004)+
   Virginia Dare: Her Pavan • Jig • Fantasy: Croatoan • Finale: a debt repaid
Wilbur Held (b. 1914): That Lonesome Valley (2007)+
Stephen Foster (1826-1864): Jeanie With the Light Brown Hair *
Victor August Herbert (1859-1924): A la Valse
* * 1951/1968 Aeolian Skinner organ, Op. 1110, St. Stephen’s Episcopal Church, Richmond, Virginia
+ 1954 Austin organ, Op. 2218, Reveille United Methodist Church, Richmond, Virginia

Respighi: Aria, Op. 31
Ottorino Respighi (b. in Bologna, July 9,1879; d. in Rome, April 18, 1936) began violin and piano lessons as a young child. Between 1891 and 1901 he was a student of violin, viola, and composition at the Liceo Musicale in Bologna. During the winters of 1900-01 and 1902-03, while working in Russia as an ochestral violist, he had a few lessons with Rimsky-Korsakov. In Italy, Respighi was employed as an orchestral player and began to be recognized as a composer. For a short time he taught at the Liceo Musicale in Bologna and in 1913 was appointed professor of composition at the Liceo Musicale di S Cecilia in Rome. The passionate and operatic Aria is the final work in Sei Pezzi per violino e pianoforte, Op. 31, the only one of the set to have organ as an alternate accompaniment.

Aavik: Fantasie, Op. 130 (1955)
Juhan Aavik (b. in Holstre, Estonia, Jan. 29, 1884; d. in Stockholm, Nov. 26, 1982) studied trumpet and music composition at the St. Petersburg Conservatory where Alexander Glazunov was one of his composition teachers. Aavik was appointed music director and conductor at the Vanemuine Theatre in Tartu, Estonia, in 1911, and subsequently held the same positions at Tallinn’s Estonia Theatre from 1925-33. From 1928-1944 he was professor and director of the music conservatory in Tallinn. Aavik promoted Estonian song festivals for many years and continued doing so in Sweden after he emigrated there in 1944. His important multivolume history of Estonian music was published in Stockholm between 1965-1969. Aavik’s interest in Estonian folk music is evident in the motivic design, harmonic movement, and lyricism of his music. The wide emotional range of Fantasie, Aavik’s only work for violin and organ (alt. piano), is achieved with a highly sectional structure and strongly contrasting timbres which are balanced by a conservative harmonic scheme.

Kint: Hymne, Op. 8
Cor (Cornelis) Kint (b. in Enkhuizen, The Nethlerlands, Jan. 9, 1890; d. in Hilversum, July 8, 1944) moved to Amsterdam in 1906. Three years later his expertise as a violist earned him a position in the Concertgebouw Orchestra although he was only 19 years old. In 1911 he co-founded the Holland String Quartet and performed with that ensemble until 1922. From 1923 until his death he taught violin, viola, and viola d’amore at the conservatory in Amsterdam. An internationally recognized performer and authority on viola d’amore, Kint also edited a number of 18th-century compositions for that instrument. He was a prolific composer, primarily of works for strings and keyboard, including organ and harmonium. Hymne (manuscript dated October 20, 1915) was published in 1919 by Seyffardt’s Muziekhandel, Amsterdam, and is available in a new Boeijenga edition. Written in a conservative, Romantic style, the solo part is particularly gratifying for the violinist.

Baghdasaryan: Tri srednevekovykh pesnopeniia (Three Medieval Chants)
Eduard Ivanovich Baghdasaryan (b. in Yerevan, Armenia, Nov. 14, 1922; d. in Yerevan, Nov. 5, 1987) received his education at the music school in Tbilisi, Georgia, and also graduated from the Yerevan Komitas Conservatory with a double major in piano and composition. From 1951-53 he studied in Moscow at the Armenian Culture House. In 1953 he was engaged in collecting Armenian folk songs which he later arranged for choir. Appointed to the composition faculty of the Romanos Melikian Music School in Yerevan, Baghdasaryan subsequently joined the Yerevan Conservatory faculty and became a professor in 1981. He was named a veteran artist of the Armenian SSR in 1963. Tri srednevekovykh pesnopeniia (Three Medieval Chants) for violin and organ was published in 1982 in a compendium of music by Soviet composers. In an earlier edition (Yerevan, 1977) the set was titled, “Preludes,” and included an arrangement for violin and piano.

Hägg: Adagio, Op. 34
Gustaf Wilhelm Peterson Hägg (b. in Visby, Sweden, Nov. 28, 1876; d. in Stockholm, Feb. 7, 1925) studied at the Stockholm Academy of Music and earned an organist diploma in 1896. During a tour of Germany and France he developed a close relationship with Charles-Marie Widor and Alexandre Guilmant. A prominent Swedish organist, Hägg was also highly respected as a teacher and composer. He was Otto Olsson’s predecessor as professor of organ at the Royal Academy of Music in Stockholm and organist at the historic St. Clara’s Church in central Stockholm (Åkerman & Lund organ, 1906-07). Hägg became a member of the Royal Academy of Music in 1906 and in 1915 was awarded a Swedish royal medal, Litteris et Artibus. Adagio, Op. 34 was published in Johannes Diebold’s collection Orgelstücke moderner Meister: Neue grössere und kleinere Orgelstücke zur Übung sowie zum gottesdienstlichen und Konzertgebrauch unter gütiger Mitwirkung hervorragender Orgelkomponisten der Gegenwart (Leipzig, Otto Junne, 1909).

Raphael: Largo from the Violin Sonata, Op. 12, No. 1
Günter Albert Rudolf Raphael (b. in Berlin, Apr. 30, 1903; d. in Herford, Germany, Oct. 19, 1960) was the grandson of the composer, Albert Becker, whose home the Hungarian violinist, Joseph Joachim, visited frequently. His father was director of music at St. Matthäus-Kirche in Berlin, the church in which Dietrich Bonhoeffer was ordained in 1931. String music filled the Raphael household; both his mother and daughter were violinists, and he was a violist. Raphael attended Berlin’s Hochschule für Musik from 1922–25, studying composition, organ, and piano. From 1926 to 1934 he taught at the State Conservatory and at the Kirchenmusikalisches Institut in Leipzig until serious illness and politics intervened. In 1948 Raphael received the Franz Liszt Award for composition, seventy years after the same award was bestowed on his grandfather. In 1949 Raphael was appointed to the Duisburg Conservatory and in 1956 to the faculty of the Peter Cornelius Conservatory of Music in Mainz and to the Cologne University of Music. The title “Senator of Honor” was granted posthumously in 1968 at the Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy University of Music and Theatre in Leipzig. The renowned Thomaskantor and organist, Karl Straube, said of him, “I . . . admire him as one of the greatest talents among the younger generation of German musicians. The compositions which I am familiar with, all works of great scope . . . testify clearly and unmistakably to a talent of the highest order!” The composer himself transcribed the accompaniment of this highly chromatic and polyphonic “Largo” movement of his Violin Sonata, Op. 12, No. 1, for organ in 1924.

Healey: A Sonata for Virginia, Op. 94 (2004)
Derek E. Healey (b. in Wargrave, England, May 2, 1936) was a student of Herbert Howells at the Royal College of Music, London, and of Boris Porena and Goffredo Petrassi in Italy. Now retired from teaching, his impressive career included positions at the Universities of Victoria, Toronto, Guelph and Oregon, and the RAF School of Music in Uxbridge, England. Of this work, composed for the Murray/Lohuis Duo, Healey wrote:

"The inspiration for the first three movements of this work was Sir Walter Raleigh’s expedition of 1587 whose intention was to form an English settlement in North America. . . . Shortly after the 121 colonists arrived, Virginia Dare was born to Ellinor and Ananias Dare in August 1587, named after Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen. The ship sailed to England for supplies, but was delayed by the war with Spain and didn’t return to America for another four years, by which time no trace of the colony was found, except for the word Croatoan (a nearby island and Native American settlement) carved on a tree. The opening movement, a courtly pavan . . . is by way of being an “in memoriam” for the first English child born in the New World. The dance’s form is traditional, consisting of three sections, each of which is followed by an ornamented variation, as was the fashion at that time. This is followed by a jig, a popular, as opposed to a courtly, dance of the sixteenth century. . . . Fantasy: Croatoan . . . [which] evokes the feelings of the returning seamen on discovering the disappearance of the settlers, is in the manner of an impassioned recitative. It uses several short motives, one of which is based on a word carved on a tree: Croatoan. The movement reaches its climax with the return of the opening pavan which then gradually subsides, ending with a 'dying-fall.'
"The finale of the sonata was, in fact, the first to be written. It was composed in 2003 . . . in repayment for an after-concert meal. . . . From the outset, I decided that the piece would stand as the finale of a complete sonata. . . . The resulting movement is in two large sections, the first of which opens with a short repetitive violin motive punctuated with isolated organ chords. A repeated-note bridge section follows which leads into a more lyrical second subject, played by the violin in its high register. The bridge section returns followed by the opening section which concludes the first half of the movement. The finale’s second half opens in a faster, moto perpetuo vein in 6/8 time, which then builds into a chorale-like reprise of the second lyrical subject. . . . The coda which follows is constructed on a fast three-measure repeated chordal pattern . . . over which the final recapitulation of the work’s opening motives are displayed in a forceful manner by the violin. A short organ fanfare and final flourishes on the violin bring the work to a close."

Held: “That Lonesome Valley”
Wilbur Held (b. in Des Plaines, Illinois, Aug. 20, 1914) studied at The American Conservatory and Union Theological Seminary in New York. During his Chicago years, he was Leo Sowerby’s assistant at St. James’s Episcopal Church. Further studies in organ with Marcel Dupré and André Marchal were complemented by composition study with Normand Lockwood and Wallingford Riegger. Formerly professor of organ and church music and head of the keyboard department at Ohio State University, he now lives in California and is active as a composer and occasional organist. John Jacob Niles sang this version of “That Lonesome Valley” to Dr. Held while visiting him in Ohio. This setting, composed for flute and organ on commission from the American Guild of Organists Region V convention committee, was premiered in June, 2007, in Columbus, Ohio. Robert Murray worked closely with Dr. Held in creating this version for violin.

Foster: Jeanie With the Light Brown Hair
Stephen Foster (b. in Lawrenceville, Pennsylvania, July 4, 1826; d. in New York City, Jan. 13, 1864) revealed remarkable talent from early childhood, plucking tunes on the guitar at age two. Primarily self taught, he began composing at age 18 the minstrel songs that would make him famous. Ultimately composing about 200 songs, Foster made little money from his compositions, his personal life was tragic, and his marriage to Jane Denny McDowell (nicknamed “Jennie”) was not happy. It is conjectured that, a year after their separation in 1853, Foster composed “Jeanie With the Light Brown Hair” in an attempt to win her back. This setting was composed by Leo Dubensky, a violinist who performed in the New York Philharmonic, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and New Orleans Philharmonic orchestras during his long career.

Herbert: A la Valse
Victor August Herbert (b. in Dublin, Ireland, Feb. 1, 1859; d. in New York City, May 26, 1924), Irish-born and German-raised, is often considered an American composer because of his long tenure and musical activities in the United States, particularly as a composer of operettas. Well before his graduation from the Stuttgart Conservatory in 1879 he was performing professionally as a cellist. He moved to the U.S. in 1886 upon his appointment as principal cellist of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra and soon began teaching cello and composition at the National Conservatory of Music in New York City and honing his skills as a conductor, as well. From 1898-1904 Herbert was the principal conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphony. Following one Saturday symphony concert with Fritz Kreisler, the famous violinist and a few members of the orchestra gathered informally at the Herbert home and played Schubert’s String Quartet with Kreisler as first violin and Herbert playing cello. Having lived and performed in Vienna in the 1880s, Herbert was very familiar with the Viennese waltz, a style he found very compatible. “A la Valse” is dedicated “to my Friend Fritz Kreisler as a small token of a great admiration.”

The Murray / Lohuis Duo
The Murray/Lohuis Duo specializes in the rarely heard international repertoire for violin and organ. Lauded by critics and front-rank musicians for their artistry and exceptional ensemble, the Duo has been featured at festivals and musicians’ conferences throughout the nation. They have premiered works by American composers and also given the American premieres of a number of works by Russian, Polish, Baltic, and East European composers. Their five Raven recordings have received critical accolades.
Robert Murray has concertized extensively as a solo violinist and has received acclaim for his brilliant technique and musical insight. He was a Columbia Artist with the Nashville String Quartet and concertmaster of numerous orchestras and chamber groups. Personally selected by Leo Sowerby to premiere his Fifth Sonata for Violin and Piano for the International Society for Contemporary Music, Murray made the only recording of that work and other Sowerby compositions for the Sowerby Foundation. His other recordings include Telemann’s Twelve Fantasias for Violin without Bass (Spectrum), both Saint-Saens violin sonatas and the four sonatas by Anton Rubinstein (Musical Heritage Society).
Ardyth Lohuis has given solo recitals in many states and performed frequently with chamber groups and orchestras. Through a National Endowment for the Humanities grant she engaged in specialized study in editing baroque music. She has been a church musician in the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic states, has sung with the Whikehart Chorale, and is sought as a pedagogue, lecturer, music editor, workshop presenter, and leader in professional organizations.

The Violin
Robert Murray performs on a 1729 Carlo Bergonzi violin. Active in Cremona, Italy, from about 1700 until his death in 1747, Bergonzi worked in close contact with both the Guarnari and Stradivari families. The tone is typical of Bergonzi: carrying and brilliant, yet liquid and mellow. A bow by François Tourte was used for the Respighi, Kint, Hägg, and Raphael pieces; one by François Nicholas Voirin for the Baghdasaryan set. Compositions by Aavik, Held, Foster, Herbert, and Healey (first three movements) were performed using a bow by Dominique Peccatte, while the final movement of Healey’s Sonata was recorded using a modern graphite-fiber CodaBow.

The Organs
Two organs were used for this recording.  They are both located in Richmond, Virginia.  One is the Aeolian-Skinner pipe organ built in 1951 by Aeolian Skinner as Op. 110 and enlarged in 1968 by Aeolian-Skinner as Op. 110b at St. Stephen's Episcopal Church.  The Austin pipe organ built in 1954 at Reveille United Methodist Church as Op. 2218 was tonally revised and enlarged in 1991 by Guzowski & Steppe.

Reveille United Methodist Church Richmond, Virginia

Aeolian-Skinner Organ Co.
Opus 110 & 110b*,1951 & 1968
St. Stephen’s Episcopal Church, Richmond, Virginia
16 Quintaton
8 Principal
8 Spitzflote
8 Bourdon
4 Principal
4 Rohrflote
2 ⅔ Twelfth
2 Fifteenth
iv Fourniture
ii-iii Cymbale*
8 Trompette de
4 Clairon de
Pos on Gt;
Sw/Gt 16 8 4;
Ch/Gt 16 8 4;
8 Holzgedackt
4 Prinzipal
4 Spillflote
2 Lieblich
1 ⅓ Larigot
1 Sifflote
iii Scharf
8 Geigen
8 Stopped
8 Viole de Gambe
8 Viole Celeste
8 Flute Celeste II
4 Principal
4 Flauto Traverso
2 Octavin
iv Plein Jeu
16 Contre
8 Trompette
8 Hautbois
4 Clairon
Sw 16 4,
Unison Off
Pos on Sw
8 Singend
8 Viola
8 Viola Celeste
8 Erzahler
8 Kleiner Erzahler
4 Koppelflote
2 ⅔ Nasard
2 Blockflote
1 Tierce
8 Clarinet
Pos on Ch;
Ch 16 4;
Unison Off;
Sw/Ch 16 8 4;
8 Principal
4 Praestant
2 Flachflote
iv-vi Mixture
8 Trompete
de Fete (Gt.)
4 Trompete
de Fete (Gt.)
16 Principal
16 Principal Bass
16 Quintaton (Gt.)
16 Bourdon
16 Echo Lieblich (Sw.)
8 Principal
8 Flute
4 Super Octave
4 Spitzflote*
iv Mixture*
32 Contre
16 Bombarde
16 Hautbois (Sw.)
8 Trompette
4 Clairon
Sw/Ped 8 4;
Ch/Ped 8 4;

Austin Organ Co., Opus 2218, 1954
Tonal revisions, Guzowski & Steppe, 1991
Reveille United Methodist Church Richmond, Virginia

16 Violone
8 Diapason
8 Diapason
Conique (Violone)
8 Harmonic Flute
8 Gemshorn
4 Octave
4 Quintaten
2 ⅔ Twelfth
2 Fifteenth
III Mixture
8 Bombarde (Ch.)
4 Bombarde (Ch.)
Gt 16, 4
Unison Off
Sw/Gt 16, 8, 4
Ch/Gt 16, 8 4
8 Geigen
8 Hohlflöte
8 Gamba
8 Voix Celeste
4 Principal
4 Rohrflöte
2 Flageolet
III Mixture
16 Bass Clarinet (Clarinet)
8 Oboe
8 Clarinet
4 Clarion
Sw 16, 4
Unison Off
8 Spitz Principal
8 Bourdon
8 Dolce
8 Dolce Celeste
4 Koppelflöte
2 ⅔ Nasard
2 Blockflöte
1 Tierce
8 English Horn
16 Bombarde (Bombarde 8)
8 Bombarde
4 Bombarde (Bombarde 8)
Ch 16, 4
Unison Off
Sw/Ch 8, 4
Gt/Ch 8
16 Diapason
16 Violone (Gt.)
16 Lieblich Gedeckt (Ch. Bourdon)
8 Octave
8 Diapason
Conique (Gt.)
8 Gedeckt (Ch.)
4 Super Octave (Octave)
4 Flute (Ch.)
16 Bombarde (Ch.)
16 Bass Clarinet (Sw.)
8 Trompete (Ch.)
Chimes (4’)
Gt/Pd 8, 4
Sw/Pd 8, 4
Ch/Pd 8, 4
Multiplex control with 75 memory channels, programmable crescendo and registration sequencer.

Works for Violin & Organ, Vol. 6, <I>An International Collection</I><BR><font color=red>The Murray / Lohuis Duo</font>
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